Introduction to Project Management. OVERVIEW. The purpose of presentation is to provide leaders and team members of projects, committees or task forces. 1. Introduction to Project Management. Introduction. Realization of these objectives requires systematic planning and careful implementation. To this effect . INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2http://www-‐caubracderfama.ml services/us/gbs/bus/pdf/gbe‐usen-‐‐making-‐change-.
|Language:||English, German, Hindi|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||26.70 MB|
|PDF File Size:||15.83 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
Project Management Institute Overview. Introduction to the Project Management Knowledge Areas Project Start-Up and. Prentice Hall. Introduction to Project. Management. Chapter 1. Introduction. Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach. Identify project management advantages and disadvantages;. 4. . Source: http:// caubracderfama.ml~/media/pdf/standards/appendixa_pfm3_ashx.
Many organisations today don't employ full-time project managers. Indeed, it's common to pull together a project team to meet a particular need, one that usually involves producing an end product or service that benefits the organisation or effects change. The end result can be tangible or intangible. Getting to that end result, successfully, is what project management is all about.
At its core, then, project management centres on the planning and control of everything involved in delivering the end result - and it's a process that every person on a project team needs to embrace, understand and execute, no matter the experience level. Even if you lack academic skills in a project methodology, taking a role in a project team provides an excellent learning opportunity, one that can improve your career profile.
Even if you're an experienced manager or team member, a review of the critical - and most basic - elements of project management can inform and improve how effectively you take projects from concept to concrete plan and through to completion.
Often, a triangle, commonly called the "triple constraint", is used to summarise project management see Figure 1. The three most important factors are time, cost and scope. These form the vertices with quality as the central theme.
More recently, the project management triangle has given way to a project management diamond - with cost, time, scope and quality as the four vertices and customer expectations as a central theme see Figure 2.
No two customers have the same expectations. You must ask, explicitly, about each customer's expectations. If you don't know what those expectations are, you have no hope of meeting them.
The role of the project manager is one of great responsibility. The project manager's job is to direct, supervise and control the project from beginning to end. Project managers should not carry out project work - managing the project is enough. Here are some of the activities a project manager undertakes:. No project ever goes quite as planned.
Project managers must learn to adapt to and manage change. Project managers bear ultimate responsibility for making things happen. Traditionally, they have carried out this role as mere implementers. To do their jobs they needed to have the necessary administrative and technical competencies.
Today they play a far broader role. In addition to the traditional skills, they need to have business skills, customer relations skills, and political skills.
Psychologically, they must be results-oriented self-starters with a high tolerance for ambiguity because little is clear-cut in today's tumultuous business environment. Shortcomings in any of these areas can lead to project failure.
Many things can go wrong in project management. Any barriers, risks and issues can affect every phase and process of project management.
Here are just some of the things that can possibly go wrong:. A good project management discipline will not eliminate all risks, issues and surprises - but it will provide standard processes and procedures to deal with them and help prevent the following:.
Project management is all about creating an environment and conditions in which to achieve a particular goal or objective - in a controlled manner with a team of people. When you're familiar with what project management entails, from the process to mitigating all that can possibly and often does go wrong, you affect the end result - whether you're engaged in a project methodology for the first time or a seasoned pro.
Enjoyed this article?
Now read 21 Ways to Excel at Project Management. It's not a continuous process. Project management uses various tools to measure accomplishments and track project tasks. Projects frequently need ad-hoc resources rather than dedicated, full-time positions common in organisations. Project management reduces risk and increases the chance of success. Often, a triangle, commonly called the "triple constraint", is used to summarise project management see Figure 1.
The three most important factors are time, cost and scope. These form the vertices with quality as the central theme. Figure 1: The triple constraint In words, the triple constraint has four core elements: Projects must be within cost. Projects must be delivered on time.
Introduction to Project Management
Projects must be within scope. Projects must meet customer quality requirements. In addition, the head dispatcher and mechanic operations will get the information. This information will also be tracked for the president, and total sales by geographical area will be updated to the minute.
All of this will be available on a secure Web site that will have passwords for each of the major users. The risk factors are usually lower, since it has already been out in the marketplace and others have a had a chance to work with it.
So the final application may not fit exactly. And that little bit of difference can be a huge problem. So there has to be some type of decision on both the cost involved with the two choices, the risks involved with the two choices, and the ease of use of the two choices.
We will contract the coding out to a company that has experience with this type of application, so while it will be specific to Jack Neift Trucking, the production people will have gone through similar projects recently. This is actually a lot easier, since there are currently several over-the-counter models that we can use.
We can give you a project schedule as soon as you say go. And for the next two hours the management team asked everything they could think of so that they could clarify the scope of the project and how they were going to be involved. When that finished, Bea asked Laurie and Sal to step outside, and she polled the management team. Do we need more time for this decision? It was a cautious go. Bea called Laurie and Sal back in and gave them the news. The project was about to start.
Summary Now you have the relevant background and details of the case that we use throughout the book.
Using these high-level tasks, you are going to walk through the planning of a case from the top down. So as you go, you will find some latitude as to the tasks you place within the highlevel tasks. Use these as your guideposts to do the rest of the case study throughout the first part of this book.
The very high-level WBS, which is included, is only a start. Each time you go further into detail in the WBS, save your work as a new version.
That way, you will be able to track the progress of the planning in the WBS and also be able to see at what point in the process you can consider resourcing, risk management, and all the other topics discussed in Part I.
The key to any WBS is getting the first major topics correct. You may wish to find experts in each of the major task areas and ask them how long they think a project like the one described would take.
An interesting exercise might be to form a work group and do the WBS together as you would with a project team. Each person on the team could have a specific area to break down, and in the process working together, you would get good information about putting a WBS together with a project team.
Good luck with this practical application of what the book discusses! Based on what we know about the types of projects that the project manager encounters, we believe that TPM, APF, and xPM represent a rich enough taxonomy to handle these very diverse project types.
In keeping with the format of the second edition, there will be plenty of opportunity to practice the tools and techniques that we have used successfully for many years and are now sharing with you. In all of the chapters throughout the book, we close with a Discussion Questions section. These questions are thought-provoking and should give those reading this book food for thought and the faculty teaching from this book ample opportunity to engage the class in lively discussion. The questions will often set up a situation and ask for a recommended action.
There are no right answers. The short, practical exercises; thought-provoking discussion questions; and comprehensive simulated problems reinforce your practice of newly acquired knowledge. For those who are familiar with the second edition, you will note that Part I in this edition contains essentially the entire second edition. In other words, it covers all of traditional project management.
We have not deleted any material on traditional project management but have actually added some new material. In Part I, you will find new or expanded discussions of the project management environment, risk management, procurement management, managing client expectation, estimating cost, organizing the project team, establishing team operating rules, communications management, change management, project status meetings, and critical chain project management.
Good luck! Things are not always what they seem. If a set of tasks or work to be done does not meet the strict definition, then it cannot be called a project. To use the project management techniques presented in this book, you must first have a project.
Introduction to Project Management
A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification. Sequence of Activities A project comprises a number of activities that must be completed in some specified order, or sequence. An activity is a defined chunk of work.
The sequence of the activities is based on technical requirements, not on management prerogatives. To determine the sequence, it is helpful to think in terms of inputs and outputs. The output of one activity or set of activities becomes the input to another activity or set of activities. The decision of what resources to use and when to use them comes later in the project planning activities.
Unique Activities The activities in a project must be unique. A project has never happened before, and it will never happen again under the same conditions.
Effective Project Management, 2nd Edition
Something is always different each time the activities of a project are repeated. Usually the variations are random in nature—for example, a part is delayed, someone is sick, a power failure occurs. These are random events that can happen, but we never are sure of when, how, and with what impact on the schedule.
These random variations are the challenge for the project manager. Complex Activities The activities that make up the project are not simple, repetitive acts, such as mowing the lawn, painting the house, washing the car, or loading the delivery truck. They are complex. For example, designing an intuitive user interface to an application system is a complex activity. What Is a Project? There is an order to the sequence in which the activities that make up the project must be completed.
They are considered connected because the output from one activity is the input to another. For example, we must design the computer program before we can program it. You could have a list of unconnected activities that must all be complete in order to complete the project.
For example, consider painting the interior rooms of a house.
With some exceptions, the rooms can be painted in any order. The interior of a house is not completely painted until all its rooms have been painted, but they may be painted in any order. Painting the house is a collection of activities, but it is not considered a project according to the definition. However, very large or complex projects may be divided into several subprojects, each of which is a project in its own right. This division makes for better management control.
For example, subprojects can be defined at the department, division, or geographic level. This artificial decomposition of a complex project into subprojects often simplifies the scheduling of resources and reduces the need for interdepartmental communications while a specific activity is worked on. The downside is that the projects are now interdependent. Even though interdependency adds another layer of complexity and communication, it can be handled. Specified Time Projects have a specified completion date.
This date can be self-imposed by management or externally specified by a customer or government agency. The deadline is beyond the control of anyone working on the project.
The project is over on the specified completion date whether or not the project work has been completed. Within Budget Projects also have resource limits, such as a limited amount of people, money, or machines that are dedicated to the project. While these resources can be adjusted up or down by management, they are considered fixed resources to the project manager. For example, suppose a company has only one Web designer at the moment.
That is the fixed resource that is available to project managers. Senior management can change the number of resources, but that 6 Chapter 1 luxury is not available to the project manager.Not sure what skills it takes to become a Project Manager? Good luck with this practical application of what the book discusses! A very good start outlining the role and responsibilities of the PM.
Systems specification can and will change, thereby presenting special challenges to the project manager. You must ask, explicitly, about each customer's expectations.